Saturday, November 22, 2014

Saint Cæcilia, Virgin and Martyr


Cæcilia united in her veins the blood of kings with that of Rome’s greatest heroes. At the time of the first preaching of the Gospel, more than one ancient patrician family had seen its direct line become extinct. But the adoptions and alliances, which under the Republic had knit more closely the great families by linking them all to the most illustrious among them, formed as it were a common fund of glory, which, even in the days of decline, was passed on intact to the survivors of the aristocracy.

It has now been demonstrated by the undeniable witness of monuments that Christianity from the very beginning took possession of that glory by adopting its heirs; and that by a wonderful disposition of divine Providence, the founders of the Rome of the Pontiffs were these last representatives of the Republic, thus preserved in order to give to the two phases of Roman history that powerful unity which is the distinguishing note of divine works. Heretofore bound together by the same patriotism, the Cornelii and the Œmilii, alike heirs of the Fabii, the Cæcilii, Valerii, Sergii, Furii, Claudii, Pomponii, Plautii, and Acilii, eldest sons of the Gentile Church, strengthened the connections formed during the Republic, and firmly established, even in the first and second centuries of Christianity, the new Roman society. In the same centuries, and under the influence of the religion preached by Saints Peter and Paul, there came to be grated on the ever vigorous trunk of the old aristocracy the best members of the new imperial and consular families, worthy by their truly Roman virtues, practices amid the general depravity, to reinforce the thinned ranks of Rome’s founders, and to fill up, without too sudden a transition, the voids made by time in the true patrician houses. Thus was Rome working out her destiny; thus was the building up of the eternal City being accomplished by the very men who had formerly, by their blood or by their genius, established her strong and mighty on the seven hills.

Cæcilia, the lawful representative of this unparalleled aristocracy, the fairest flower of the old stem, was also the last. The second century was passing away; the third, which was to see the empire fall from the hands of Septimus Severus first to the Orientals and then to the barbarians from the banks of the Danube, offered small chance of preservation for the remnants of the ancient nobility. The true Roman society was henceforth at an end; for, save a few individual exceptions, there remained nothing more of Roman but the name: the vain adornment of freedmen and upstarts who, under princes worthy of them, indulged their passions at the expense of those around them.

Cæcilia therefore appeared at the right moment, personifying with the utmost dignity the society that was about to disappear because its work was accomplished. In her strength and her beauty, adorned with the royal purple of martyrdom, she represents ancient Rome rising proud and glorious to the skies, before the upstart Cæsars who, by immolating her in their jealousy, unconsciously executed the divine plan. The blood of kings and heroes flowing from her triple wound is the libation of the old nobility to Christ the conqueror, to the Blessed Trinity the Ruler of nations; it is the final consecration, which reveals in its full extent the sublime vocation of the valiant races called to found the eternal Rome.

But we must not think that today’s feast is meant to excite in us a mere theoretical and fruitless admiration. The Church recognizes and honors in Saint Cæcilia three characteristics which, united together, distinguish her among all the Blessed in heaven, and are a source of grace and an example to men. These three characteristics are virginity, apostolic zeal, and the superhuman courage which enabled her to bear torture and death. Such is the threefold teaching conveyed by this one Christian life.

In an age so blindly abandoned as ours to the worship of the senses, is it not time to protest, by the strong lessons of our faith, against a fascination which even the children of the promise can hardly resist? Never, since the fall of the Roman empire, have morals, and with them the family and society, been so seriously threatened. For long years, literature, the arts, the comforts of life, have had but one aim: to propose physical enjoyment as the only end of man’s destiny. Society already counts an immense number of members who live entirely a life of the senses. Alas for the day when it will expect to save itself by relying on their energy! The Roman empire thus attempted several times to shake off the yoke of invasion: it fell never to rise again.

Yes, the family itself, the family especially, is menaced. It is time to think of defending itself against the legal recognition, or rather encouragement, of divorce. It can do so by one means alone: by reforming and regenerating itself according to the law of God, and becoming once more serious and Christian. Let marriage, with its chaste consequences, be held in honor; let it cease to be an amusement or a speculation; let fatherhood and motherhood be no longer a calculation, but an austere duty: and soon, through the family, the city and the nation will resume their dignity and their vigor.

But marriage cannot be restored to this high level unless men appreciate the superior element, without which human nature is an ignoble ruin: this heavenly element is continence. True, all are not called to embrace it in the absolute sense; but all must do honor to it, under pain of being delivered up, as the Apostle expresses it, to a reprobate sense. It is continence that reveals to man the secret of his dignity, that braces his soul to every kind of devotedness, that purifies his heart and elevates his whole being. It is the culminating point of moral beauty in the individual, and at the same time the great lever of human society. It is because the love of it became extinct that the ancient world fell to decay; but when the Son of the Virgin came on earth, he renewed and sanctioned this saving principle, and a new phase began in the destinies of the human race.

The children of the Church, if they deserve the name, relish this doctrine, and are not astonished at it. The words of our Savior and of his Apostles have revealed all to them; and at every page, the annals of the faith they profess set forth in action this fruitful virtue, of which all degrees of the Christian life, each in its measure, must partake. St. Cæcilia is one example among others offered to their admiration. But the lesson she gives is a remarkable one, and has been celebrated in every age of Christianity. On how many occasions has Cæcilia inspired virtue or sustained courage; how many weaknesses has the thought of her prevented or repaired! Such power for good has God placed in his Saints, that they influence not only by the direct imitation of their heroic virtues, but also by the inductions which each of the faithful is able to draw from them for his own particular situation.

The second characteristic offered for our consideration in the life of St. Cæcilia is that ardent zeal, of which she is one of the most admirable models; and we doubt not that here too is a lesson calculated to produce useful impressions. Insensibility to evil for which we are not personally responsible, or from which we are not likely to suffer, is one of the features of the period. We acknowledge that all is going to ruin, and we look on at the universal destruction without ever thinking of holding out a helping hand to save a brother from the wreck. Where should we now be, if the first Christians had had hearts as cold as ours? If they had not been filled with that immense pity, that inexhaustible love, which forbade them to despair of a world, in the midst of which God had placed them to be the salt of the earth? Each one felt himself accountable beyond measure for the gift he had received. Freeman or slave, known or unknown, every man was the object of a boundless devotedness for these hearts filled with the charity of Christ. One has but to read the Acts of the Apostles, and their Epistles, to learn on what an immense scale the apostolate was carried on in those early days; and the ardor of that zeal remained long uncooled. Hence the pagans used to say: “See how they love one another!” And how could they help loving one another? For in the order of faith they were fathers and children.

What maternal tenderness Cæcilia felt for the souls of her brethren, from the mere fact that she was a Christian! After her we might name a thousand others, in proof of the fact that the conquest of the world by Christianity and its deliverance from the yoke of pagan depravity are due to such acts of devotedness performed in a thousand places at once. and at length producing universal removation. Let us imitate in something at least, these examples to which we owe so much. Let us waste less of our time and eloquence in bewailing evils which are only too real. Let each one of us set ot work, and gain one of his brethren: and soon the number of the faithful will surpass that of unbelievers. Without doubt, this zeal is not extinct; it still works in some, and its fruits rejoice and console the Church; but why does it slumber so profoundly in so many hearts which God had prepared to be its active centers?

This cause is unhappily to be traced to that general coldness, produced by effeminacy, which might be taken by itself alone as the type of the age; but we must add thereto another sentiment, proceeding from the same source, which would suffice, if of long duration, to render the debasement of a nation incurable. This sentiment is fear; and it may be said to extend at present to its utmost limit. Men fear the loss of goods or position, fear the loss of comforts and ease, fear the loss of life. Needless to say, nothing can be more enervating, and consequently more dangerous to the world, than this humiliating preoccupation; but above all, we must confess that it is anything but Christian. Have we forgotten that we are merely pilgrims on this earth? And has the hope of future good died out of our hearts? Cæcilia will teach us how to rid ourselves of this sentiment of fear. In her days, life was less secure than now. There certainly was then some reason to fear; and yet Christians were so courageous that the powerful pagans often trembled at the words of their victims.

God knows what he has in store for us; but if fear does not soon make way for a sentiment more worthy of men and of Christians, all particular existences will be swallowed up in the political crisis. Come what may, it is time to learn our history over again. The lesson will not be lost if we come to understand this much: had the first Christians feared, they would have betrayed us, for the word of life would never have come down to us; if we fear, we shall betray future generations, for we are expected to transmit to them the deposit we have received from our fathers.

The Passion Sanc&ealig; Cæciliæ is marked on the most ancient Calendars on the 16th of September, and took place, according to the primitive Acts, under the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. The great feast of November 22nd, preceded by a Vigil, was one of the most solemn on the Roman Cycle; it recalled the dedication of the church raised on the site of the palace which had been sanctified by the blood of the descendant of the Metelli, and had been bequeathed by her when dying to Bishop Urban, representative of Pope Eleutherius. This Urban having been later on confounded with the Pope of the same name, who governed the Church in the time of Alexander Severus, the martyrdom of our Saint was thought to have occurred half a century later, as we still read in the Legend of the Office.

It was most probably in the year 178 that Cæcilia joined Valerian in heaven, whence, a few months before, the Angel of the Lord had descended, bringing wreaths of lilies and roses to the two spouses.

She was buried by Urban, just as she lay at the moment of death. In the beginning of the following century, the family crypt was given by her relatives to the Roman church, and was set apart for the burial of the Popes. In the ninth century, Paschal I found her surrounded by these venerable tombs, and brought her back in triumph on May 8th, 822, to her house in the Trastevere, where she remains to this day.

On the 20th of October, 1599, in the course of the excavations required for the restoration of the basilica, Cæcilia was once more brought forth to the admiring gaze of the city and of the world. She was clad in her robe of cloth of gold, on which traces of her virginal blood were still discernible; at her feet were some pieces of linen steeped in the purple of her martyrdom. Lying on her right side with her arms stretched before her, she seemed in a deep sleep. Her neck still bore the marks of the wounds inflicted by the executioner’s sword; her head, in a mysterious and touching position, was turned towards the bottom of the coffin. The body was in a state of perfect preservation; and the whole attitude, retained by an antique prodigy during so many centuries in all its grace and modesty, brought before the eyes with a striking truthfulness Cæcilia breathing her last sigh stretched on the floor of the bath chamber.

The spectators were carried back in thought to the day when the holy bishop Urban had enclosed the sacred body in the cypress chest, without altering the position chosen by the bride of Christ to breathe forth her soul into the arms of her divine Spouse. They admired also the discretion of Pope Paschal, who had not disturbed the virgin’s repose, but had preserved for posterity so magnificent a spectacle.

Cardinal Sfondrate, titular of St. Cæcilia, who directed the works, found also in the chapel called of the Bath the heating stove and vents of the sudatorium, where the Saint passed a day and a night in the midst of scalding vapors. Recent excavations have brought to light other objects belonging to the patrician home, which by their style, belong to the early days of the Republic.

Let us now read the liturgical history of the illustrious Virgin and Martyr.

Cæcilia, virgo Romana, nobili genere nata, a prima ætate christianæ fidei præceptis instituta, virginitatem suam Deo vovit. Sed cum postea contra suam voluntatem data esset in matrimonium Valeriano, prima nuptiarum nocte hunc cum eo sermonem habuit: Ego, Valeriane, in Angeli tutela sum, qui virginitatem meam custodit: quare ne quid in me committas, quo ira Dei in te concitetur. Quibus verbis commotus Valerianus, illam attingere non est ausus: quin etiam addidit, se in Christum crediturum, si eum Angelum videret. Cui Cæcilia, cum sine baptismo negaret id fieri posse, incensus cupiditate videndi Angelum, se baptizari velle respondit. Quare hortatu virginis ad Urbanum Papam, qui propter persecutionem in Martyrum sepulchris via Appia latebat, veniens, ab eo baptizatur.

Cæcilia, a Roman virgin of noble origin, was brought up from her infancy in the Christian faith, and vowed her virginity to God. Against her will, she was given in marriage to Valerian; but on the first night of the nuptials she thus addressed him: Valerian, I am under the care of an Angel, who is the guardian of my virginity; wherefore beware of doing what might kindle God’s wrath against thee. Valerian moved by these words respected her wishes, and even said that he would believe in Christ if he could see the Angel. On Cæcilia telling him that this could not be unless he received Baptism, he, being very desirous of seeing the Angel, replied that he was willing to be baptized. Taking the virgin’s advice, he went to Pope Urban, who on account of the persecution was hiding among the tombs of the Martyrs on the Appian Way, and by him he was baptized.

Inde ad Cæciliam reversus, orantem et cum ea Angelum divino splendore fulgentem invenit. Quo aspectu obstupefactus, ut primum ex timore confirmatus est, Tiburtium fratrem suum accersit: qui a Cæcilia Christi fide imbutus, et ab eodam Urbano baptizatus, ipse etiam ejusdem Angeli, quem frater ejus viderat, aspectu dignatus est. Uterque autem paulo post Almachio præfecto constanter martyrium subiit. Qui mox Cæciliam comprehendi imperat, ab eaque primum, ubi Tiburtii et Valeriani facultates sint, exquirit.

Then returning to Cæcilia, he found her at prayer, and beside her an Angel shining with divine brightness. He was amazed at the sight; but as soon as he had recovered form his fear, he sought out his brother Tiburtius; who also was instructed by Cæcilia in the faith of Christ, and after being baptized by Pope Urban, was favored like his brother with the sight of the Angel. Both of them shortly afterwards courageously suffered martyrdom under the prefect Almachius. This latter next commanded Cæcilia to be apprehended, and commenced by asking her what had become of the property of Tiburtius and Valerian.

Cui cum virgo omnia illorum pauuperibus distributa esse respondisset, eo furore concitatus est, ut eam in ipsius ædes reductam, in balneo comburi jusserit. Quo in loco cum diem noctemque ita fuisset, ut ne flamma quidem illam attingeret; eo immissus est carnifex, qui ter securi ictam, cum caput abscindere non potuisset, semivivam reliquit. Illa triduo post, decimo calendas decembris Alexandro imperatore duplici virginitatis et martyrii palma decorata, evolavit in cœlum. Cujus corpus ab ipso Urbano Papa in Callisti cœmeterio sepultum est, in ejus ædibus ecclesia ipsius Cæciliæ nomine consecrata. Ejus et Urbani ac Lucii Pontificum, Tiburtii, Valeriani et Maximi corpora a Paschali primo Pontifice inde translata in Urbem, in eadem sanctæ Cæciliæ ecclesia condita sunt.

The virgin answered that it had all been distributed among the poor; at which the prefect was so enraged, that he commanded her to be led back to her own house, and put to death by the heat of the bath. When, after spending a day and a night there, she remained unhurt by the fire, an executioner was sent to dispatch her; who, not being able with three strokes of the axe to cut off her head, left her half dead. Three days later, on the tenth of the Kalends of December, she took her flight to heaven, adorned with the noble glory of virginity and martyrdom. It was in the reign of the emperor Alexander. Pope Urban buried her body in the cemetery of Callixtus; and her house was converted into a church and dedicated in her name. Pope Paschal I translated her body into the city, together with those of Popes Urban and Lucius, and of Tiburtius, Valerian, and Maximus, and placed them all in this church of St. Cæcilia.

The Antiphons and Responsories of the 22nd of November are all taken from the Acts of the Saint, and are the same as were used in the time of St. Gregory. We choose such of them as will complete the foregoing history. The first Responsory represents the virgin as singing in her heart to God amid the profane music of the nuptial feast. It was this silent melody, superior to all earthly concerts, that inspired the happy idea of picturing St. Cæcilia as the queen of harmony, and proclaiming her patroness of the most attractive of arts.

Antiphons and Responsories

℟. Cantantibus organis Cæcilia virgo in corde suo soli Domino decantabat, dicens: *Fiat Domine cor meum et corpus meum immaculatum, ut non confundar.

℟. Amid the harmony of musical instruments, the virgin Cæcilia sang in her heart to the Lord alone, saying: * Let my heart, O Lord, and my body be spotless, that may not be confounded.

℣. Biduanis et triduanis jejuniis orans, commendabat Domino quod timebat. * Fiat.

℣. During two days and three days of fasting and prayer, she commended to the Lord what she feared. * Let my heart.

℟. O Beata Cæcilia, quæ duos fratres convertisti, Almachium judicem superasti, * Urbanum episcopum in vultu angelico demonstrasti.

℟. O blessed Cæcilia, who didst convert the two brothers, and overcome the judge Almachius. * Urban the bishop of angelic countenance thou didst show to them.

℣. Quasi apis argumentosa Domine deservisti. * Urbanum.

℣. As a busy bee thou didst serve the Lord. * Urban.

℟. Virgo gloriosa semper Evangelium Christi gerebat in pectore, et non diebus neque noctibus vacabat. * A colloquiis divinis et oratione.

℟. The glorious virgin carried always the Gospel of Christ on her heart; and by day and by night she ceased not * From divine colloquies and prayer.

℣. Expansis manibus orabat ad Dominum, et cor ejus igne cœlesti ardebat. * A colloquiis.

℣. With outstretched hands she prayed to the Lord, and her heart burned with a heavenly fire. * From divine.

℟. Cilicio Cæcilia membra domabut, Deum gemitibus exorabat: * Tiburtium et Valerianum ad coronas vocabat.

℟. Cæcilia subdued her flesh with hair-cloth, and besought God with groanings. * Tiburtius and Valerian she called to their crowns.

℣. Hæc est virgo sapiens, et una de numero prudentum. * Tiburtium.

℣. This is a vise virgin, one of those who are prudent. * Tiburtius.

℟. Domine Jesu Christ, pastor bone, seminator casti consilii, suscipe seminum fructus quos in Cæcilia seminasti: * Cæcilia famula tua quasi apis tibi argumentosa deservit.

℟. O Lord Jesus Christ, good Shepherd, Author of chaste resolutions, receive the fruits of the seed thou didst sow in Cæcilia: * Cæcilia thy handmaid serves thee like a busy bee.

℣. Nam sponsum, quem quasi leonem ferocem accepit, ad te quasi agnum mansuetissimum destinavit. * Cælicia. Gloria Patri. Cæcilia.

℣. For the spouse whom she had received like a fierce lion, she led to thee as a gentle lamb. * Cæcilia. Glory be to the Father. * Cæcilia.

Ant. Est secretum Valeriane, quod tibi volo dicere: Angelum Dei habeo amatorem, qui nimio zelo custodit corpus meum.

Ant. I have a secret, Valerian, which I wish to tell thee: I have an Angel of God, who loves me, and with diligent zeal watches over my body.

Ant. Beata Cæcilia dixit ad Tiburtium: Hodie te fateor meum cognatum, quia amor Dei te fecit esse contemptorem idolorum.

Ant. Blessed Cæcilia said to Tiburtius: Today I acknowledge thee for my brother, because the love of God has made thee become a contempter of idols.

Ant. Credimus Christum Filium Dei verum Deum esse, qui sibi talem elegit famulam.

Ant. We believe that Christ the Son of God, who chose for himself such a handmaid, is true God.

Ant. Dum aurora finem daret, Cæcilia exclamavit, dicens: Eia milites Christi, abjicite opera tenebrarum, et indiumini arma lucis.

Ant. As dawn was breaking into day, Cæcilia cried out saying: Courage, soldiers of Christ, cast away the deeds of darkness, and put on the armor of light.

Ant. Triduanas a Domino propsci inducias, ut domum meam ecclesiam consecrarem.

Ant. Cæcilia dying said: I have asked of the Lord three days’ delay, that I may consecrate my house into a church.

The two following hymns were approved by the Apostolic See in 1852.


Terrena cessent organa,
Cor æstuans Cæciliæ
Cœleste fundit canticum,
Deoque totum jubilat.

Hushed be the music of earth: Cæcilia’s burning heart pours out the heavenly song she sings to her God alone.

Dum nuptiali nobilis
Dumos resultat gaudio,
Hæc sola tristis candido
Gemit columba pectore.

While the noble house resounds with the nuptial joy, this dove alone is sad, and her pure heart sighs out:

O Christe mi dulcissime,
Cui me sacravit charitas,
Serva pudoris integram,
Averte labem corpore.

O Christ, most sweet, to whom I am bound by love, preserve my purity of soul and body.

Ovis leonem sedula
Agnum facit mitissimum:
Hic fonte lotus mystico,
Cœlo repente militat.

The diligent sheep converts the lion into a meek lamb; and he, washed in the mystic font, begins at once to fight for the King of heaven.

Solvit Tiburtium soror
Erroris a caligine;
Fractoque fratris asseclæ
Ad astra pandit semitam.

Sister now of Tiburtius, she frees him from darksome error, and bidding him follow his brother, points out the path to heaven.

Seges per illam plurima
Superna replet horrea:
Verbo potens, fit particeps
Apostolorum gloriæ.

Through her efforts an abundant harvest fills the heavenly granaries; powerful in word, she shares the glory of the Apostles.

Delapsus acre siderum
Illam tuetur Angelus;
Rosæque mixtæ liliis
Ambire crines gestiunt.

An Angel comes down from the highest heavens to protect her; a rose and lily wreath entwines her flowing locks.

Sertum rubens et candidum
Affertur una conjugi,
Quem castitatis æmulum
Cœlestis ardor efficit.

White and ruddy also is the crown brought to her spouse, whom heavenly love has led to emulate her purity.

Te, sponse, Jesu, virginum
Beata laudent agmina;
Patrique cum Paraclito
Par sit per ævum gloria. Amen.

May the happy choirs of virgins praise thee, O Jesus, their Spouse; to the Father and the Paraclete be equal and eternal glory. Amen.


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